Archive for the Tactical Applications Category

Combat Tactics: (Economy of Movement)

Posted in Tactical Applications on April 17, 2011 by policetac

“The only practitioner who can beat a Wing Chun practitioner is a better, faster, Wing Chun practitioner.” Yip Man

Wing Chun allows one the possibility of overcoming an opponent’s inherent superior speed by applying the principles of the art. Wing Chun does not rely on physical build, but on a logical sequence of economic movements.

Yip Man taught that in Wing Chun, there are several types of speed. If you cannot overcome your opponent with one type of speed, you can beat him with another.
In the Wing Chun theorys of speed there are four areas of concern:

SPEED: The type of speed normally refered to during a punch or kick. Calculated in feet per second. Improvable with consistant practice.

DIRECT MOVEMENT: Straight-line theory states simply that “The shortest distance between two points is a straight line.” A straight punch is shorter and quicker than a swing or a hook punch.

READINESS: In Wing Chun, the power is not generated just by the moving hand or leg, so there is no need to chamber or cock the attacking leg or arm. When one typicly throws a heavy punch or powerful kick, it’s common to cock back or “chamber” the leg or arm before execution of the movement. This not only telegraphs the move, but also wastes valuable time and motion.

TRAINED REFLEXIVE REACTION: Reaction without thinking. Good form with all the techniques, without proper reflex and feeling of balance development training, leaves actual combat skills ineffective. Chi Sao technique drills, (two people) must be drilled over and over, until they become habit or “second nature”. After “muscle memory” has been developed.


Combat Tactics: (History of Wing Chun)

Posted in Tactical Applications on April 17, 2011 by policetac

By: Richard Brown

This article written by Grandmaster Yip Man is also found in “Form, Style, or Art” of this blog. It will serve as a general introduction to Wing Chun as well as various other art forms for comparison.

In the next series of articles I will be focusing on the different trainings included in Wing Chun, and most traditionally instructed martial arts systems.

But first…..

From: “The Origins of Wing Chun”
By: Grandmaster Yip Man
The founder of the Wing Chun Kung Fu System, Miss Yim Wing Chun was a native of Canton [Kwangtung Province] in China. She was an intelligent and athletic young girl, upstanding and forthright. Her mother died soon after her betrothal to Leung Bok Chau, a salt merchant of Fukien. Her father, Yim Yee, was wrongfully accused of a crime and, rather than risk jail, they slipped away and finally settled down at the foot of Tai Leung Mountain near the border between Yunan and Szechuan provinces. There they earned a living by running a shop that sold bean curd.
During the reign of Emperor K’anghsi of the Ching Dynasty (1662-1722) Kung Fu became very strong in the Siu Lam [Shaolin] Monastery of Mt. Sung, in Honan Province. This aroused the fear of the Manchu government [a non-Chinese people from Manchuria in the North, who ruled China at that time], which sent troops to attack the Monastery. Although they were unsuccessful, a man named Chan Man Wai, a recently appointed civil servant seeking favor with the government, suggested a plan.

He plotted with Siu Lam monk Ma Ning Yee and others who were persuaded to betray their companions by setting fire to the monastery while soldiers attacked it from the outside. Siu Lam was burned down, and the monks and disciples scattered. Buddhist Abbess Ng Mui, Abbot Chi Shin, Abbot Pak Mei, Master Fung To Tak and Master Miu Hin escaped and went their separate ways.

Ng Mui took refuge in the White Crane Temple on Mt. Tai Leung [also known as Mt. Chai Har]. It was there she met Yim Yee and his daughter Wing Chun from whom she often bought bean curd on her way home from the market. At fifteen, with her hair bound up in the custom of those days to show she was of an age to marry, Wing Chun‘s beauty attracted the attention of a local bully. He tried to force Wing Chun to marry him, and his continuous threats became a source of worry to her and her father. Ng Mui learned of this and took pity on Wing Chun. She agreed to teach Wing Chun fighting techniques so she could protect herself. Wing Chun followed Ng Mui into the mountains, and began to learn Kung Fu. She trained night and day, until she mastered the techniques. Then she challenged the bully to a fight and beat him.

Ng Mui later traveled around the country, but before she left she told Wing Chun to strictly honor the Kung Fu traditions, to develop her Kung Fu after her marriage, and to help the people working to overthrow the Manchu government and restore the Ming Dynasty.

After her marriage Wing Chun taught Kung Fu to her husband Leung Bok Chau. He in turn passed these techniques on to Leung Lan Kwai. Leung Lan Kwai then passed them on to Wong Wah Bo. Wong Wah Bo was a member of an opera troupe on board a junk, known to Chinese as the Red Junk. Wong worked on the Red Junk with Leung Yee Tei. It so happened that Abbot Chi Shin, who fled from Siu Lam, had disguised himself as a cook and was then working on the Red Junk. Chi Shin taught the Six-and-a-half-point Long Pole techniques to Leung Yee Tei. Wong Wah Bo was close to Leung Yee Tei, and they shared what they knew about Kung Fu. Together they shared and improved their techniques, and thus the Six-and-a-half-point Long Pole was incorporated into Wing Chun Kung Fu. Leung Yee Tei passed his Kung Fu on to Leung Jan, a well known herbal Doctor in Fat Shan. Leung Jan grasped the innermost secrets of Wing Chun, attaining the highest level of proficiency. Many Kung Fu masters came to challenge him, but all were defeated. Leung Jan became very famous. Later he passed his Kung Fu on to Chan Wah Shan, who took me and my elder Kung Fu brothers, such as Ng Siu Lo, Ng Chung So, Chan Yu Min and Lui Yu Jai, as his students many decades ago.

It can thus be said that the Wing Chun System was passed on to us in a direct line of succession from its origin. I write this history of the Wing Chun System in respectful memory of my forerunners. I am eternally grateful to them for passing to me the skills I now possess. A man should always think of the source of the water as he drinks it; it is this shared feeling that keeps our Kung Fu brothers together.

Is this not the way to promote Kung Fu, and to project the image of our country?

Yip Man

Combat Tactics: (Tactical Martial Arts)

Posted in Tactical Applications on April 7, 2011 by policetac

By: Richard Brown

“The clever combatant imposes his will on the enemy, but does not allow the enemy’s will to be imposed on him.”Sun Tzu

What are, “Tactical Martial Arts?

Tactical Martial Arts: Are specific, modern, concepts, applications, proceedures, or techniques that are applied utilizing traditional and formal martial arts styles and art forms. Incorporating ideas with physical action to create and conduct decisive, offensive and defensive operations, whether they are situations, goals,targets, target areas, or situational outcomes.

Tactician: An individual devoted to mastering the science and art of tactics.

The science of tactics: That which encompasses the understanding of the concepts and aspects of tactics capabilities, techniques, and procedures that can be measured and codified.

The science of tactics include:
*Understanding the physical capabilities of opponents and systems. (human psychology, physiology, and applicable “group” dynamics)
*Known techniques and procedures used to accomplish specific tasks. (takedowns, restraint, immobilization, dynamic control)
*Integration of conceptual ideas into practical, workable, applications that can be utilized repeatedly, consistantly, and effectively to achieve greater effect. (development)
*Tactical terminology and control graphics that comprise the language of tactics. (training and instruction)
*Working knowledge of how known or unknown variables, limitations, physical and procedural constraints are taken into consideration.

While not easy, the science of tactics is fairly straightforward. However, because combat is an intensely human activity the solution to tactical problems cannot be reduced to a formula. This realization necessitates the study of the “art” of tactics.

The art of tactics: The product or process of deliberately arranging items (often with symbolic significance) in a way that influences and affects one or more of the senses, emotions, and intellect. Traditionally, the term art was used to refer to any skill or mastery.

An art, as opposed to a science, requires exercising intuitive faculties that cannot be learned solely by study. The tactician must temper his study and evolve his skill through a variety of relevant, practical experiences. The more experience the tactician gains from practice under a variety of circumstances, the greater his mastery of the art of tactics.

The tactician must be able to invoke the art of tactics in “real-time” or when necessary in order to confront obstacles, constraints, or variables that may interfere in the sucessful completion of an employed tactic or strategy. To make confident decisions under conditions of uncertainty when faced with an intelligent enemy.

Combat is one of the most complex human activities, characterized by violent death, friction, uncertainty, and chance. Success depends at least as much on this human aspect as it does on any tactical or technological superiority.

“Strategy without tactics is the slowest route to victory. Tactics without strategy is the noise before defeat.”(Sun Tzu)

Combat Tactics: (Preliminaries)

Posted in Tactical Applications on March 29, 2011 by policetac

By: Richard Brown

Combat: A purposeful conflict meant to establish dominance over the opposition.
Tactics: Any mode of procedure for gaining advantage or success. The study and description of such patterns. Tactics are specific actions that require judgment and adaptation to the unique circumstances of a specific situation. They are based on observations, experience, training, experimentation, and consistent evidence of successful applications.
Techniques: The general and detailed methods used to perform specific actions, missions and functions.
Procedures: Standard and detailed courses of action that describe how to perform specific tasks.
Concept: An abstract term. “A cognitive unit of meaning.” “An abstract idea or mental symbol, sometimes defined as a “unit of knowledge,” Built from other units which act as a concept’s characteristics, A concept is typically associated with a corresponding representation in a language or symbology such as a single meaning of a term. (Such as the concept of “combat tactics.”)

Two of the most influencial masters of the martial arts, Master William Cheung and Master Bruce Lee both used the same word when describing the tactical approach to the martial arts. Both used the word “concepts” when describing to others how “combat technique” is developed, refined, and effectively applied.

There are prevailing theories in contemporary philosophy which attempt to explain he nature of concepts. The representational theory of mind proposes that concepts are mental representations while the semantic theory of concepts holds that they are abstract objects. “Ideas” are taken to be concepts, although abstract concepts do not necessarily appear to the mind as images as some ideas do. Many philosophers consider concepts to be a fundamental ontological category of being.

“War is, above all things, an art, employing science in all its branches as its servant, but depending first and chiefly upon the skill of the artisan. It has its own rules, but not one of them is rigid and invariable. As new implements are devised new methods result in its mechanical execution; but over and above all its mechanical appliances, it rests upon the complex factors of human nature, which cannot be reduced to formulas and rules. The proper use of these thinking and animate parts of the great machine can be divined only by the genius and instinct of the commanders. No books can teach this, and no rules define it.” (Captain Francis V. Greene, 1883

Realizing that war, or combat, be it urban or international in scale, is still waged by people, it becomes clear that proper training of tactical combat concepts to students is the key to success in training for military operations, law enforcement, or in modern defense of self or others.

With the exception of most “advanced” students, the ability to apply martial arts concepts successfully in real warfare situations, would seem to be the logical outcome of lessons learned while participating in formal studies of any traditional martial art. In reality however, this is typically not the case.

One of the most obvious reasons for this is because the majority of most martial arts students fail to continue their study’s much past a “beginner” to “intermediate” level. In most formal settings, a student will take at least a couple of years just learning how to correctly perform “basic” blocks, punches, and kicks. Combine this with mandatory class stretching, individual and class instruction, seemingly endless repetitions of required drills, practice of Kata required for advancement, and so on, it becomes a little bit easier to understand how most students leave training with little more than the basics.

“A fighter must possess a fair standard of technical ability in the fighting arts before tactics can be applied successfully. Once the mechanics can be made automatically, only then can the mind concentrate on discovering the opponent’s reactions, anticipating his intentions, and devising the “strategy” and “tactics” required to seize and secure specific advantages.”(Bruce Lee)

The tactics and supporting techniques and procedures described in this series are only starting points for the tactician, who must understand the difference between tactics, techniques and procedures. Tactics always require judgment and adaptation to the unique circumstances of a specific situation. They are established patterns that can be applied repeatedly with little or no judgment in a variety of circumstances. They provide the tactician with a set of tools to use in developing the solution to any tactical problem. To show solutions to any specific problem solved by a unique combination of tactics, techiques, or proceedures based on a critical evaluation of the situation. That the tactician determines his solution by a thorough mastery of the these basics, his current teachings, existing applications, and experimentation. All tempered and honed by experience gained through training and operations. He uses his creativity to develop solutions for which the enemy is neither prepared, nor able to cope.

The articles in the remainder of this series will focus on “Wing Chun Basics,” combined with “tactics” and “procedures” used to employ available means to achieve victory in “combat” situations. To analize situations prior to engagement and develop strategies that take advantage of weaknesses in the opponent, thus achieving and maintaining situational control, and victory in combat.


Posted in Tactical Applications on March 26, 2011 by policetac

By: Richard Brown

Underlying all combatives techniques are principles the hand-to-hand fighter must apply to successfully defeat an opponent. The natural progression of techniques, as presented, will instill these principles.

Mental Calm: During a fight a combatant must keep the ability to think. Fear or anger must not control one’s actions.
Situational Awareness: Things are often going on around the combatants that could have a direct impact on the outcome of the combat situation. Such as opportunity, weapons, or other personnel creating interference.
Suppleness: A combatant cannot always count on being the biggest or strongest participant. One should, therefore, never try to oppose their opponent in a direct test of strength.
Supple misdirection of the opponent’s strength allows superior technique and fight strategy to overcome superior strength.
Base: Base refers to the posture that allows a one to gain leverage from the ground. Generally, a fighter must keep their center of gravity low and their base wide, much like a pyramid.
Dominant Body Position: Position refers to the location of the fighter’s body in relation to his opponent’s. A vital principle when fighting is to gain control of the opponent by controlling this relationship. Before any secondary technique can be applied, the combatant must first gain and maintain one of the dominant body positions. (Back mount, front mount, guard)
Distance: Each technique has a window of effectiveness based upon the amount of space between the two combatants. The fighter must control the distance between
themselves and the opponent in order to control the fight.
Physical Balance: Balance refers to the ability to maintain equilibrium and to remain in a stable upright position.
Leverage: A fighter uses the parts of their body to create a natural mechanical advantage over the parts of the opponent’s body. By using leverage, a fighter can have a greater effect on a much larger opponent.